Oncology Legislation Tracker

Comprehensive Oncology State Legislation Tool

The NCODA Oncology State Legislation Tracking Tool provides comprehensive access to the most up-to-date information on state legislation interests related to oncology health policy. This NCODA member tool allows users to select individual states of interest and access relevant bill numbers, complete bill readings, a brief bill summary and a ‘why it matters’ section for each bill.

All NCODA Members Have Access To This Tool.


This tool allows busy healthcare professionals to become more active participants in their state’s legislative affairs that directly impact their practice and the patients they serve.

“This tool is revolutionary in how much of an impact it will make for all practices that are trying to navigate state health policy change. It’s difficult for state practices to be involved in policy, and NCODA’s State Legislation Tracker is really going to help us be up-to-date on the recent policy changes in different states to help each state understand how and where they need to act to be effective.”

Debra Patt, MD, PhD, MBA
Executive Vice President | Texas Oncology

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is the "insured"?
Who is the "insurer"?
What is a deductible?
What is a copay?
What is co-insurance?
What are health benefits?
  • Health care items or services covered under a health insurance plan.
  • These include but are not limited to: prescription drugs, pediatric services, chronic disease management services, preventive health services, emergency services, hospitalization, mental health services, ambulatory patient services, laboratory services, and rehabilitation services.
  • Resources:
What are Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs)?
What is telemedicine or telehealth services?
What is biomarker testing and what are some examples?
What is "spread pricing”?
What is the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC) pricing?
What are Direct and Indirect Remuneration (DIR) fees and "clawbacks"?
  • DIR fees are fees charged to pharmacies by pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) and can include fees for being a part of the PBM’s network of pharmacies, compliance fees, fees for filling a prescription drug, fees based on pharmacy performance on meeting metrics, etc. These fees are sometimes charged weeks to months after a prescription drug is filled in a pharmacy.
  • Ultimately, a clawback is the process of pharmacy benefit managers recovering from the dispensing pharmacy, and keeping as profit, the difference between a patient’s co-payment and the pharmacy drug cost when the co-payment exceeds the pharmacy drug cost. This leads to a higher drug cost than what the actual cost is and leads patients to pay higher copays for their medications.
  • Resources:
What is a Medicaid Managed Care Model?
What is the Wholesale Acquisition Cost (WAC) of a drug?
What are Pharmacy Services Administrative Organizations (PSAOs)?
  • These organizations communicate with health plans and pharmacy benefit managers on behalf of community pharmacies (including independent pharmacies).
  • They help these pharmacies in various ways, including (but not limited to): understanding pharmacy benefit managers’ audit findings and appealing them, identifying unpaid or incorrect claims, and other administrative operations.
  • Resources:
What is the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC)?
What is a utilization review process?
  • The process of making sure healthcare services are being used appropriately and efficiently.
  • This review is done by a covered individual’s health plan to evaluate the covered individual’s care plan, including the need for certain medications and services.
  • It is done to confirm whether or not the health plan will provide coverage for the medication, service, or treatment plan under review.
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What is a therapeutic interchange process?
What is "extrapolation" in audits conducted by pharmacy benefit managers?
  • A process in which the auditor, chosen by the pharmacy benefit manager, reviews only a CERTAIN NUMBER of all claims submitted INSTEAD of all of the claims. From that number, the auditor counts the number of claims with errors or claims that do not comply with regulations, and extrapolates that across the TOTAL number of claims submitted.
  • For example, if 500 claims are submitted by a pharmacy of which the auditor reviews 50 of them and finds that 5 contain errors, the auditor will EXTRAPOLATE and seek recoupment (or refund) for 10% of ALL 500 claims submitted.
  • This is not an accurate representation of how many claims actually contained errors/non-compliance.
  • Resources:
What is a drug formulary for a health plan?
What are white, brown, and clear bagging practices as well as their risks and benefits?
  • “White bagging” practices involve distribution of a drug from a pharmacy (usually a specialty pharmacy) to the PHYSICIAN’S office, hospital, or clinic to have it administered to the patient.
  • “Brown bagging” practices involve dispensing of a drug from a pharmacy (usually a specialty pharmacy) DIRECTLY to a PATIENT, who then transports the drug to the physician’s office to have it administered.
  • “Clear bagging” practices involve a health system-owned specialty pharmacy dispensing medications for administration in the health system’s infusion centers.
  • Potential issues with “white’ and “brown” bagging include (but are not limited to): improper handling and storage of the drug which may be unsafe for patients taking the drug and delays in treatment for the patient due to issues in the delivery process. On the other hand, “clear” bagging may lead to improved continuation of care the patient receives.
  • Resources:
What is the Maximum Out Of Pocket (MOOP) expense?
What is a premium?
What are copay accumulator programs?
What are copay maximizer programs?
What are prior authorizations?
  • A process used by health plans to determine if a prescribed product will be covered in full or a portion.
  • This process requires the doctor, or another provider prescribing the medication/other services, to get approval from the insured’s health plan BEFORE the cost is covered by the health plan and the medication is given to the patient.
  • This process can be long and DELAY patients from getting the care that they need.
  • Resources:
What are cost sharing requirements?
  • The share of costs covered by an insured’s health plan that the insured pays out of their own pocket.
  • This includes deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments, or similar charges, but it doesn’t include premiums, balance billing amounts for providers out of the health plan’s network, or the cost of services that are not covered under the health plan.
  • Resources:
What is the 340B Drug Pricing Program and its entities?
What are step therapy protocols?
What are Generic Effective Rates (GERs) and Brand Effective Rates (BERs)?
  • GERs and BERs are rates set by a pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) when they get into a contract with a pharmacy to manage the pharmacy’s generic or brand drug spend. PBMs promise that they will provide a certain percentage discount off the average wholesale price of the generic or brand drug. For example, a GER/BER of 75% means the PBM will pay a pharmacy 75% less than the average wholesale price of that generic or brand drug.
  • Although this may seem beneficial for pharmacies, the actual cost for the pharmacy of acquiring the generic/brand drug may be a lot higher than the reimbursements they receive from PBMs through GERs/BERs. Also, PBMs may not be clear in the contract and use maximum allowable cost (MAC) pricing and if PBMs pay the pharmacy above the MAC, they charge the pharmacy to get their money back. GERs and BERs may lead to significant loss in profit for pharmacies.
  • Resources:
What is the reverse auction process involving health plans and pharmacy benefit managers?
What are clinician-administered drugs?
What is an adverse determination?
What is a “Tiered network plan"?
What is a plan sponsor?
What are A-rated or B-rated generic equivalent drugs?
  • An A-rated generic equivalent is a generic medication that is equivalent to a brand medication by having identical amounts of the ingredients (including the active drug), identical dose form (tablets, capsules, etc.), and are both administered the same way.
  • On the other hand, B-rated drugs are those, which the FDA considers NOT to be therapeutically equivalent due to actual or potential bioequivalence problems, which have not been resolved.
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What is a Medicaid Fee-For-Service (FFS) model?
What are "tiers" in a health plan's formulary?
  • Health plan’s formulary are usually divided into 3 or 4 categories called “tiers” Drugs are placed in tiers based on the type of drug (such as generic, preferred brand, non-preferred brand, and specialty).
  • Usually, the lower the tier, the lower the copay or out of pocket costs.
  • Non-preferred medications will usually be placed in higher tiers and cost more whereas generics will be placed in lower tiers.
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What is "recoupment" in an auditing process?
  • For conducted audits, recoupments are requests for refunds from the auditor on claims that the health plan/PBM overpaid so that they are able to recover that extra money.
What is a fiduciary duty and how does it relate to pharmacy benefit managers and health plans?
  • A fiduciary duty exists in law when a person or entity (such as a health plan) places trust, confidence, and reliance on another (such as a pharmacy benefit manager) to exercise discretion or expertise in acting on behalf of the client.
  • In this case, a pharmacy benefit manager must act in the best interest of the health plan it is contracted with.
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What are specialty drugs?
What is prescription or medication synchronization and how does it benefit patients?
  • The process of a pharmacist coordinating a single day each month for patients to pick up their medication refills instead of having to come in to the pharmacy on different days to pick up their refills
  • This is convenient for patients, allowing them fewer trips to the pharmacy to pick up their medications and the chance to meet with their pharmacist monthly to discuss their medications
  • Resources:


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